Turbine convert possible power (water mind) into mechanical energy. Turbine idea is opposing to pump and generally better then pump considering less cavitation and converging movement.
Major factor that can affect the Turbine performance are
1. Velocity Triangle : All impellers are designed for a particular movement rate and pressure mind. It is known as design point and the circulation is named ranked circulation, at this movement rate inlet liquid hit tangentially (smoothly) regarding the impeller. This aspect impeller has actually minimum surprise reduction. In the event that movement is lessor or maybe more then your ranked flow rate, water try not to strike tangentially on impeller blade also it cause surprise losses. All the liquid turbine benefit a range of flow price, so it will be designed with movable inlet guide vanes. Inlet guide vanes can transform the movement way, therefore can alter the ranked circulation rate for that impeller.
2. Eddy losses : In the event that turbine casing is not created correctly, it can cause eddy losses. In sharp turns, the circulation separates from turbine wall surface and produce eddies. The eddies will reduce the circulation area and pull power through the main flow. Decreasing eddy formation will improve efficiency.
3. Leakage losses: Leakage take place in 2 places 1. Mechanical seal leakage, 2. leakage between high-pressure to low-pressure side . Reducing leakage will improve the efficiency.
4. Cavitation : In water turbine design you should be cautious about cavitation. Cavitation may be the development of vapour cavities in a liquid – i.e. tiny liquid-free areas ("bubbles" or "voids") – which can be the result of causes acting upon the fluid. It usually takes place when a liquid is put through quick modifications of that cause the development of cavities where in fact the stress is reasonably reduced. When afflicted by higher force, the voids implode and that can create a powerful shockwave.