Two types of unique water serpent (genus Nerodia) have grown to be established in Ca:
Verified Sightings and communities (two species):
- Southern water snake ( N. fasciata): self-sustaining population within Machado Lake, on Kenneth Malloy Memorial Park, in Harbor City, l . a . County1
- Southern water serpent: self-sustaining populace inside Folsom section of Sacramento County2, 3, 4
- Northern water snakes (N. sipedon): grabbed in Roseville, CA.
- South water snakes (N. fasciata): captured at Mittry Lake, near Yuma, AZ.
A third species, the diamond-backed water snake (N. rhombifer), had been recorded at Lafayette Reservoir, east of Berkeley, into the 1990s. That populace declined to undetectable levels and could have not survived. But present reports of liquid snakes in the Lafayette Reservoir suggest that the diamond-backed liquid snakes could be recuperating at that area.
Sources Cited, with Notes
Balfour, P. S., and E. W. Stitt. 2002. Geographical circulation: Nerodia fasciata fasciata (banded watersnake). USA: Ca: Sacramento Co. Herpetological Review 33:150.
Balfour, P.S., E.W. Stitt, and M.M. Fuller. 2007. Geographic distribution: Nerodia fasciata pictiventris (Florida liquid serpent). Herpetological Assessment 38:363. (Provides updated information about communities present in Northern and south California).
Fuller, M.M. and B.W. Trevett. 2006. Geographical circulation: Nerodia fasciata pictiventris (Florida liquid serpent). Herpetological Evaluation 37:363. (First posted record the Florida water serpent populace in Ca).
Stitt, E.W., P.S. Balfour, T. Luckau, and T.E. Edwards. 2005. The south watersnake (Nerodia fasciata) in Folsom, California: history, populace attributes, and reference to various other introduced watersnake in the united states. Last report to United States Fish and Wildlife Service. ECORP Asking Inc.
Map of Water Snake Sightings
Just How Performed Water Snakes Invade California?
For many years, liquid snakes and other non-native reptiles were routinely brought in to Ca the animal trade. We believe the origin of all water snakes in California could be the intended or accidental release of snakes bought at pet shops.
The fact is, water snakes make poor pets. They are at risk of biting and spray-defecating with a foul-smelling musk release when handled. Water snakes rarely become tame plus don't prosper in captivity. Reptile enthusiasts accustomed to more easily taken care of types can become frustrated with pet water snakes. Perhaps not planning to eliminate the snakes, proprietors may simply release them into the closest aquatic habitat. We believe that is a likely reason that water snakes is now able to be found outside their particular local range.
Images of Non-Native Liquid Snakes
Threat Posed by Non-Native Water Snakes
Within united states, snakes in the genus Nerodia are indigenous to the eastern and southeastern United States, east Canada, and Mexico. Unlike the cottonmouth water moccasin (Agkistrodon piscivorus), which has maybe not become created in California, liquid snakes aren't toxic and don't present a threat to human protection.
Although liquid snakes are not dangerous to people, as introduced (exotic) predators they pose a hazard to all-natural methods and indigenous types. Liquid snakes feed mainly on small fish, frogs, tadpoles, and possibly crayfish. Unique predators can harm local ecosystems by decimating populations of their victim. Exotics also take on indigenous species for food, and may carry brand new parasites or diseases which could distribute to indigenous species.
Many Californian fish, amphibians, and aquatic snakes became rare plus risk of extinction in Ca, mainly as a result of the increasing loss of natural freshwater habitats (over 90 percent associated with the initial degree of freshwater habitat in Ca is lost; US Geological Survey). Currently struggling with lack of habitat, local aquaitc organisms today face the added anxiety of introduced water snakes.
Similar Local Snake SpeciesA number of aquatic serpent types that are native to California superficially resemble non-native water snakes, and attention should always be taken to not ever hurt unidentified snakes that appear to be liquid snakes. Garter snakes (genus Thamnophis) would be the indigenous serpent types mostly present or near fresh water in California. Numerous garter snakes are distinguished from water snakes by the main stripe that works down the straight back of garter snakes. The stripe is yellowish, orange, red, tan, grey, or white. Water snakes are lacking the central stripe, and now have crossbands or no obvious markings alternatively. But two species of Ca garter serpent, the Sierra garter serpent and two-striped garter snake, lack the central stripe, plus one various other types, the Oregon garter serpent, occasionally features a stripe, and often will not. Consequently, the second three types might easier confused with non-native water snakes.
Native garter snakes within California include the following:
Appropriate Reputation of Liquid Snakes in CaliforniaSince January 2008, all non-native water snakes (genus Nerodia) are regulated as restricted pets by the California division of Fish and Game (Sec. 671, Title 14, Calif. Code of Regulations). It is now unlawful to import, transportation, or possess water snakes associated with the genus Nerodia in California without a permit.
If you're presently in control of just one or even more water snakes for the genus Nerodia, PLEASE USUALLY DO NOT RELEASE THEM. The snakes ought to be removed humanely, including aided by the support of a veterinarian.