A dam is a hydraulic structure of fairly impervious product built across a river to produce a reservoir on its upstream side for impounding liquid for assorted functions. These reasons might be Irrigation, Hydropower, Water-supply, Flood Control, Navigation, Fishing and Recreation. Dams is built to meet with the among above reasons or they might be built rewarding one or more. As a result, Dam may be categorized as: Single-purpose and Multipurpose Dam.
Different components & terminologies of Dams:
- Crest: the top the Dam. These may in many cases be applied for providing a roadway or walkway throughout the dam.
- Parapet walls: Low Protective wall space on either region of the roadway or walkway from the crest.
- Heel: percentage of Dam in touch with floor or river-bed at upstream part.
- Toe: Portion of dam touching ground or river-bed at downstream part.
- Spillway: It is the arrangement made (kind of passageway) nearby the top of dam for the passing of excess/ extortionate liquid from the reservoir.
- Abutments: The valley slopes on either region of the dam wall surface to which the remaining & correct end of dam are fixed to.
- Gallery: amount or carefully sloping tunnel like passageway (small room like room) at transverse or longitudinal in the dam with strain on flooring for seepage liquid. These are generally provided for having space for drilling grout holes and drainage holes. These could also be used to allow for the instrumentation for studying the performance of dam.
- Sluice method: starting when you look at the dam close to the base, provided to clear the silt accumulation into the reservoir.
- Free board: The space between the highest level of liquid in reservoir therefore the top of the dam.
- Dead Storage level: amount of permanent storage space below that your liquid won't be withdrawn.
- Diversion Tunnel: Tunnel constructed to divert or replace the direction of liquid to sidestep the dam construction web site. The dam is made whilst the lake flows through diversion tunnel.
A lot of different dams
Dams is categorized in amount of ways. But the majority usual means of classification of dams tend to be mentioned below:
Based on the features of dam, it could be categorized the following:
Storing dams: They are built to store liquid through the rainy season if you find a large flow in river. Numerous little dams impound the springtime runoff for later use in dried out summers. Storing dams could also supply a water offer, or improved habitat for seafood and wildlife. They may keep liquid for hydroelectric power generation, irrigation or even for a flood control project. Storage dams are the most frequent particular dams as well as in basic the dam means a storage dam unless qualified otherwise.
Diversion dams: A diversion dam is constructed for the true purpose of diverting water for the river into an off-taking channel (or a conduit). They offer sufficient pressure for pressing water into ditches, canals, or other conveyance systems. These types of shorter dams can be used for irrigation, as well as diversion from a stream to a distant storage reservoir. A diversion dam is generally of reduced height and contains a little storage reservoir on its upstream. The diversion dam is sort of storage space weir that also diverts water and has a small storage space. Often, the terms weirs and diversion dams are utilized synonymously.