All About dams

March 6, 2018
Amy Adams keeps upbeat at

A farmer on their motorbike on lender between irrigated areas. When you look at the history, pylons carry hydroelectric energy through the Sélingué dam (picture: Mike Goldwater/GWI)The worldwide liquid Initiative (GWI) has been working together with smallholders living near Sélingué dam since 2009 to learn the way the dam affects the livelihoods of regional farmers and just what improvements might be made. The Sélingué dam acts a number of functions, including providing hydropower and irrigation for farming – primarily rice.

To cut back impoverishment and make certain higher quantities of productivity, governments need to comprehend which these farmers tend to be and exactly how far better support them.

Diversification assists smallholders become more resilient

Whilst Malian government favours rice monocultures, a number of the family farmers we work with grow a range of plants or earn a living from non-agricultural tasks. It will help all of them handle unpredictable climate conditions, along with changing marketplace prices. The government and household farmers' different perspectives have to be reconciled.

Farmers which lived-in the region prior to the dam had been built often have usage of rain-fed plots and pasture in addition to irrigated land. As a result, obtained various requirements in terms of land tenure and farming assistance solutions.

(select all the photos below to expand them).

Moussa Traoré, a 30-year-old father with one youngster, is growing okra. Their crop has-been afflicted with pests from a badly-maintained neighbouring land. The following year he plans to grow maize rather. He in addition grows rice while the two plots tend to be enough to feed their household. He attempted mining when but didn’t enjoy it (Photo: Mike Goldwater/GWI)

Land allocation relating to household requirements

Irrigation plots were allocated after the dam ended up being built relating to different criteria.

People farming around Sélingué feature people displaced because of the dam construction who were provided plots into the irrigation scheme in which they primarily grow rice; people just who lived in the location before the dam ended up being built and still have their rain-fed plots besides irrigated land; and migrants and retired public servants who possess arrive at Sélingué to begin farming from the irrigation scheme.

How big land, therefore the resources and guidance services readily available, see whether or perhaps not they may be able stay from the land or have to depend on non-agricultural earnings resources.

Advantages of flexible land tenure

Not every person is ready, or ideal, to farm the land they've. Others, that donot have access to any land, or adequate to meet their demands, are searhing for farm work to supplement their particular income or as a means of getting their living.

Since the land regarding irrigation plan is community land, it cannot formally be offered, passed down or rented completely, even though sometimes this could gain both smallholder among others. Numerous land holders do employ on land for starters or maybe more cropping periods – informally – generally simply because they are lacking resources for seed, fertiliser, labour etc, to cultivate it on their own.

Responding to the needs of family farmers

A household farming rice and cassava, or bananas, requires advice and assistance for several components of their particular smallholding. This needs of women, teenagers together with elderly additionally needs to be shown and dealt with.

Farmers' organisations have to play a stronger part in deciding just how farming solutions are supplied and the dam administration companies must understand and stay responsible to these organisations. Many of these modifications require policymakers in order to make 'soft' versus 'hard' assets – in communication and instruction and fertiliser and equipment.

Moussa Samgare, 18, is a tailor just who additionally is the owner of a plot of irrigated land. He works in the field every morning from 7am, then would go to their store and works indeed there until 6pm (picture: Mike Goldwater/GWI)

Lucile Robinson ( is knowledge and communications coordinator the Worldwide Water Initiative – West Africa.


IIED and its own partners should be holding a side occasion, called 'Towards socially simply and financially viable dams in western Africa', at World liquid Week 2015 in Stockholm, Sweden from 23-28 August, 2015 to fairly share a number of the classes learnt through the work associated with GWI in western Africa, and trade experiences with other people from throughout the world about how to make big multi-purpose dams more 'socially only and economically viable'.

Les photos prises afin de los angeles worldwide liquid Initiative en Afrique de l'Ouest dans des villages proches du barrage de Sélingué au Mali montrent que lorsqu'il s'agit de périmètres irrigués autour des grands barrages, il n'y a pas d'exemple type d'exploitant familial.

La Global liquid Initiative (GWI) travaille avec les exploitants familiaux qui vivent près du barrage de Sélingué depuis 2009 pour tenter de découvrir remark le barrage affecte leurs moyens d'existence et les améliorations qu'il serait possible d'apporter. Le barrage de Sélingué remplit un certain nombre de fonctions, y compris la fourniture d'hydroélectricité et d'irrigation à des fins agricoles – principalement afin de la riziculture.

Diola Coulibaly, 79, is a retired soldier, with a little yard land (0.04 hectares) that he utilizes to cultivate rice. He's a hectare of rice an additional element of Sélingué, also expands okra. Diola has two wives and eight young ones. Their boy, Moussa Coulibaly, 19, along with his son’s partner Mamou Coulibaly, 18, utilize him. Diola has actually an army pension along with his sons do all of the work. The family share their harvest among them (Photo: Mike Goldwater/GWI)Pour diminuer la pauvreté et garantir des niveaux plus élevés de productivité, les pouvoirs publics ont besoin de vraiment comprendre qui sont ces exploitants et quelle est la meilleure façon de les aider.

La diversification aide les exploitants familiaux à être plus résilients

Si le gouvernement malien encourage la monoculture du riz, beaucoup d'exploitants familiaux avec lesquels nous travaillons cultivent plusieurs produits et gagnent leur vie à partir d'activités non agricoles. Ceci leur permet d’être plus résilients aux changements de climat ou de marché. Il faudrait réconcilier la perspective des pouvoirs publics et celle des exploitants familiaux.

Les producteurs qui vivaient dans la région avant que le barrage ne soit construit ont souvent accès à des parcelles de culture pluviale et des pâturages ainsi qu'à des terres irriguées. De ce fait, leurs besoins sont différents en termes de régime foncier et de services de conseil agricole.

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Répartition des terres en fonction des besoins du ménage

Parmi ceux qui pratiquent l'agriculture dans la région de Sélingué, figurent des familles déplacées par la construction du barrage à qui ont été attribuées des parcelles dans le périmètre irrigué où elles cultivent généralement du riz ; des familles qui vivaient dans la région avant la construction du barrage et qui ont encore des parcelles en cultures pluviales en plus des terres irriguées ; et des fonctionnaires en retraite ou des migrants qui sont venus à Sélingué afin de commencer à exploiter les terres irriguées.

La taille des parcelles auxquelles les producteurs ont accès, ainsi que les ressources et services conseils disponibles, déterminent s’ils peuvent ou non subvenir à leurs besoins grâce à leurs terres ou s'ils doivent obtenir recours à des sources de revenu non agricoles.

Les avantages d'un régime foncier souple

Tout le monde n'est pas capable d'exploiter les terres à sa disposition et certains préfèrent gagner leur vie d’autre façon. Au contraire, d'autres cherchent à cultiver un chouhia plus de surface ou n'ont pas d'accès au foncier et recherchent un travail agricole pour compléter leur revenu ou comme moyen de gagner leur vie.

Comme les terres du périmètre irrigué relèvent du domaine general public, officiellement elles ne peuvent être ni vendues, ni héritées, ni louées, même si parfois cela rendrait service aux exploitants familiaux et autres. Beaucoup de détenteurs de parcelles cèdent la mise en valeur de leurs terres pendant une ou plusieurs campagnes – de manière informelle – le plus souvent parce qu'ils n'ont pas les ressources nécessaires en termes de semences, d'engrais, de main-d'œuvre, etc. pour les exploiter eux-mêmes.

Il existe différentes solutions foncières susceptibles de fournir plus de souplesse et de sécurité aux exploitants agricoles, tel que le bail emphytéotique.

Répondre aux besoins des exploitants familiaux

Pour que les petits producteurs puissent augmenter leur productivité, leur niveau de revenu et améliorer leur sécurité alimentaire, ils doivent avoir accès à des conseils agricoles et à des solutions, ainsi qu'un accès aux marchés et aux intrants tels que les engrais et les semences.

Seydou Kassojue, 47, has actually a yard story (0.1 ha) where he grows lettuce. They can get four crop yields annually using this land. He makes 50, 000-100, 000 CFA per period selling the lettuces to support their two wives and five kiddies. He's already been a farmer for 27 years and something of their wives has actually another plot as a part of a lady's co-op (Photo: Mike Goldwater/GWI) Seydou Haidara, 35, distributing chemical fertiliser on his 0.10 ha rice-field. He has another 0.75 ha land somewhere else and only works in agriculture considering that the earnings from both areas is enough to give the household (Photo: Mike Goldwater/GWI) Benogo Diarra, 25, needs to make adequate to cover his subsistence as a miner so he manages cattle for Modibou Diallo, 42, who's an agronomist into the civil solution working for the Sélingué dam management company (ODRS) (picture: Mike Goldwater/GWI) Ogobara Kodjo, the fertiliser business agent in Sélingué, with sacks of phosphate fertiliser (picture: Mike Goldwater/GWI)
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